Location of REE mineralization in Quebec:
4. Kwyjibo
5. Montviel deposit
6. Lac Shortt deposit
7. Grande-Vallée deposit
8. Haltaparche
9. Kipawa deposit
10. Baie-Mercier
11. Wares occurrence
12. St-Lawrence Columbium mine and Niocan deposit

Geology and Mineralization

Rare Earth Element (REE) deposits can occur in different geological settings, among the most common being associated with carbonatites. As described in Sappin, A.-A. and Beaudoin, G., 2015, most carbonatite complexes are formed in intracratonic anorogenic or post-orogenic extensional settings and are commonly spatially related to major crustal structures (Woolley and Kjarsgaard, 2008). Carbonatites form composite intrusive complexes associated with alkaline rocks, sills, dikes, and isolated masses with various shapes. The carbonatite complexes display evidence of hydrothermal remobilization and metasomatism (Chakhmouradian and Zaitsev, 2012). The metasomatic alteration leads to the formation of a halo around the igneous complexes with sodic and/or potassic rocks, called fenites, and the formation of veins and veinlets rich in alteration minerals.

Quebec Rare Earth Elements properties, namely the Carcajou and Lynx, are located along the Waswanipi-Saguenay Zone as shown below (red star location of projects) which is interpreted as a deep-seated extensional failed mid-continental rift zone. This zone is also spatially associated with many alkalic intrusive rocks and other REE deposits and showings.